CBSE Syllabus: Class 10 & 12 Guide for Academic Excellence

CBSE Syllabus Class 10 & 12 Guide for Academic Excellence

Are you looking for the ultimate guide for academic excellence for Classes 10 and 12? Look no further! In this blog, we will discuss the CBSE syllabus for both Classes 10 and 12 and provide valuable tips to help you excel in your studies. We will discuss the various topics covered by the syllabus, the resources available to you, and how to make the most of the syllabus to maximize your academic performance. So, read on and equip yourself with the knowledge and skills needed for academic success.

Table of Content

CBSE Overview

Main objectives of CBSE 10 and 12 syllabus 

Exam pattern of CBSE for classes 10 and 12

  • CBSE Class 10 Exam Pattern

  • CBSE Class 12 Exam Pattern

Important Regulations to Follow During CBSE Examinations

Total subjects in CBSE syllabus in class 10 


Subjects in the CBSE syllabus in class 12


CBSE class 10 syllabus


CBSE class 12 syllabus


Tips to get good marks in CBSE class 10 and 12 boards exam






CBSE Overview

CBSE stands for the Central Board of Secondary Education, a national board of education in India under the Union Government of India. Furthermore, it is responsible for conducting secondary and senior secondary-level examinations and directing the curriculum and textbooks. Additionally, it also lay down the course of instruction and syllabus for all the schools that are affiliated with it. Finally, it also monitors and regulates the development and improvement of secondary education in India.

Since 1962, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), which is based in New Delhi, has been a highly respected and popular education board in India. Moreover, it has a huge number of associated schools both in India and abroad. Furthermore, the CBSE organizes two significant tests: the All India Secondary School Examination (AISSE) for 10th grade and the All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE) for 12th grade.

The CBSE syllabus is created to give a balanced education, with not only an emphasis on academics but also on participating in co-curricular activities. Additionally, this board puts great importance on the development of students, including giving them skills-based education and introducing technology into how they learn.

Additionally, CBSE conducts several entrance exams, such as JEE, NEET, and CTET, for getting admission to professional courses. Consequently, if you are planning to study the CBSE syllabus for classes 10 and 12, this blog is the right place for you. Here you can get all the vital details required to pass these exams. Finally, we wish you luck with your examination!

Main objectives of CBSE 10 and 12 syllabus 

The main objectives of the CBSE syllabus for Classes 10 and 12 are as follows:

  • In order to ensure that students receive a holistic education, it is important to provide a combination of both academic and co-curricular activities. Additionally, this encourages a healthy balance in physical and mental health and development.
  • To foster comprehensive student growth, it is essential to develop a deep understanding of various subjects as well as to stimulate critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
  • Help students reach success in college and in their future jobs, it is important that they gain the proper knowledge, skills, and values. Moreover, all of these things are necessary for them to thrive in the future.
  • Spur students to take advantage of technology, and become digitally literate, it is essential to incorporate technology into the learning process. Consequently, without technology, the future would be impossible.
  • Help students grow into well-rounded people, we must show them how important it is to be physically, socially, emotionally, and morally active. Moreover, all of these aspects are essential to becoming a good person.
  • Creates a strong sense of national identity, pride, and social cohesion, as well as celebrates cultural diversity, it is important that all responsible citizens understand these values.
  • Survival in society, it is essential that the education we receive is up-to-date and adapts to the changing needs of the economy and our environment
  • Ensures that every student has the same chances, no matter their background or financial situation, it is essential to provide equal opportunities.
  • Promote creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship among students, it is vital that they are given the opportunity to explore these activities – all of which are key in growing their minds.

Exam pattern of CBSE for classes 10 and 12

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) follows a specific exam pattern for the Class 10 and Class 12 board exams. 

CBSE Class 10 Exam Pattern

  • The CBSE Class 10 board exam has two parts. The first part is called the Internal Assessment, and the second part is called the External Examination.
  • The school will do an Internal Assessment that counts for 20 points. This includes taking tests, doing different kinds of work, and completing other activities.
  • The External Examination is very important because it counts for 80 marks. You will have 3 hours to complete a test which is worth 100 marks.
  • For Class 10, the written exam includes subjects like Math, Science, Social Science, English (both language and literature), and usually a second language like Hindi.
  • The exam has two sections. Part A has questions with multiple-choice answers and Part B has questions that need written answers.
  • For the Science test, students have to make a project report and do an experiment in the lab.

CBSE Class 12 Exam Pattern

  • The CBSE Class 12 board exam is split into two sections: Internal Assessment and External Examination. Furthermore, internal assessment is when your teacher gives you marks based on tests or assignments you completed in class. Moreover, the external examination is when you take a bigger exam that gives you a score out of 100.
  • The Internal Assessment is worth 20 marks and is done by the school. Additionally, t includes tests throughout the year, multiple types of assignments, experiments, and other activities.
  • The External Examination has 80 marks out of 100. It will last for 3 hours and you will have to answer written questions.
  • Class 12 students have to take a written exam with six subjects: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Accountancy, Business Studies, Economics, English (Core), and a second language (usually Hindi).
  • The written exam has two sections. Part A includes questions with multiple-choice answers, and Part B includes questions that need a more detailed response.
  • For the practical examination in Science, students need to submit a project report and perform a practical examination in the laboratory.
  • For subjects like Accountancy, Business Studies, and Economics, students must prepare project reports and submit them to the school for evaluation.

Important Regulations to Follow During CBSE Examinations

  • Firstly, students must arrive for the exam early and in accordance with the information given to them by the school. 
  • Secondly, they must ensure their admit card, stationery items and other necessary items are with them when they enter the exam hall. 
  • Thirdly, speaking or consulting with other students is prohibited in the exam hall. 
  • Additionally, they should switch off their phones or leave them out of the exam hall with the invigilator. 
  • Furthermore, they must not discuss the questions being asked in the exam with others. 
  • Moreover, they should not write anything other than what is necessary on their answer sheet. 
  • Additionally, rough work should be done on the question paper itself which should then be crossed off. 
  • Finally, students should carefully read the instructions provided to them by the invigilator and must comply with them.

Total subjects in CBSE syllabus in class 10 

The total number of subjects in the CBSE syllabus in Class 10 is five mandatory subjects and one optional subject. The mandatory subjects include:

  • English Language and Literature
  • Hindi A or Hindi B (students can choose one)
  • Mathematics
  • Science (which includes Physics, Chemistry, and Biology)
  • Social Science (which includes History, Geography, Political Science, and Economics)

In addition to these mandatory subjects, students can also choose one additional subject as per their interest and availability in their school. And the optional subjects offered by the CBSE syllabus for Class 10 include:

  • Sanskrit
  • French
  • German
  • Urdu
  • Arabic
  • Malayalam
  • Sindhi
  • Tamil
  • Telugu
  • Gujarati
  • Manipuri
  • Assamese
  • Nepali
  • Limboo
  • Lepcha
  • Bhutia
  • Spanish
  • Russian
  • Persian
  • Nepali (old)
  • Tangkhul
  • Japanese
  • Bhutia (old)
  • Mizo
  • Bahasa Melayu

Note: The availability of optional subjects may vary from school to school and region to region.

Subjects in the CBSE syllabus in class 12

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) offers a wide range of subjects for students in Class 12, including core subjects, elective subjects, and vocational subjects. Here are the subjects offered in the CBSE syllabus for Class 12:

  • English Core
  • Hindi Core / Hindi Elective
  • Mathematics
  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Biology
  • Accountancy
  • Business Studies
  • Economics
  • History
  • Geography
  • Political Science
  • Sociology
  • Psychology
  • Home Science
  • Physical Education
  • Computer Science
  • Informatics Practices
  • Multimedia and Web Technology
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Biotechnology

Note: The availability of subjects differs from school to school and region to region. Furthermore, students can select elective or vocational subjects depending on their interests and desired career paths.

CBSE class 10 syllabus

Firstly, the CBSE Class 10 syllabus includes various core subjects such as Science, Mathematics, and Social Science with a specific weightage for each. In addition to the core papers, students are also required to sit for an elective paper from a range of subject options. Here will explain CBSE Class 10 syllabus:

English Language and Literature

A. Reading

  • Unseen Passages (two passages)

B. Writing

  • Writing a Diary Entry
  • Writing a Notice
  • Writing an Article
  • Writing an Email

C. Grammar

  • Tenses
  • Modals
  • Subject-Verb Agreement
  • Reported Speech
  • Clauses
  • Prepositions

Hindi A / Hindi B

A. अपठित गद्यांश

B. निबंध लेखन

C. व्याकरण

  • वाक्य विन्यास
  • अलंकार
  • लिंग
  • संधि एवं संयोजन
  • पद परिचय


  • Number Systems
  • Algebra
  • Coordinate Geometry
  • Geometry
  • Trigonometry
  • Mensuration
  • Statistics and Probability


A. Chemical Substances – Nature and Behaviour

  • Chemical Reactions
  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Metals and Non-Metals

B. World of Living

  • Life Processes
  • Control and Coordination in Animals and Plants
  • Reproduction

C. Natural Phenomena

  • Reflection and Refraction of Light
  • The Human Eye and the Colourful World
  • Electricity
  • Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

D. Effects of Current

  • Sources of Energy
  • Our Environment
  • Management of Natural Resources

Social Science

A. History

  • The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
  • The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
  • Nationalism in India

B. Geography

  • Resources and Development
  • Forest and Wildlife Resources
  • Water Resources
  • Agriculture
  • Minerals and Energy Resources
  • Manufacturing Industries
  • Lifelines of the National Economy

C. Political Science

  • Power Sharing
  • Federalism
  • Democracy and Diversity
  • Gender, Religion and Caste
  • Popular Struggles and Movements

D. Economics

  • Development
  • Sectors of the Indian Economy
  • Money and Credit
  • Globalisation and the Indian Economy
  • Consumer Rights

CBSE class 12 syllabus

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has designed the Class 12 syllabus to provide a comprehensive and balanced education to students. Furthermore, each subject has a specified weightage and curriculum associated with it. Here is the syllabus for CBSE Class 12:

English Core

A. Reading Comprehension

  • Unseen Passages (two passages)

B. Writing Skills

  • Article Writing
  • Speech Writing
  • Report Writing
  • Letter Writing

C. Literature Textbooks

  • Prose
  • Poetry
  • Supplementary Reader

Hindi Core / Hindi Elective

A. अपठित गद्यांश

B. निबंध लेखन

C. व्याकरण

  • वाक्य विन्यास
  • अलंकार
  • लिंग
  • संधि एवं संयोजन
  • पद परिचय


  • Relations and Functions
  • Algebra
  • Calculus
  • Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry
  • Linear Programming
  • Probability


  • Electrostatics
  • Current Electricity
  • Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
  • Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Optics
  • Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Atoms and Nuclei
  • Electronic Devices


  • Solid State
  • Solutions
  • Electrochemistry
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Surface Chemistry
  • General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • p-Block Elements
  • d and f Block Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen
  • Biomolecules
  • Polymers
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life


  • Reproduction
  • Genetics and Evolution
  • Biology and Human Welfare
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Ecology and Environment


  • Accounting for Partnership Firms
  • Reconstitution and Dissolution of Partnership
  • Accounting for Share Capital and Debentures
  • Analysis of Financial Statements
  • Cash Flow Statement

Business Studies

  • Principles and Functions of Management
  • Business Finance and Marketing
  • Business Environment


A. Microeconomics

  • Introduction to Microeconomics
  • Consumer Behaviour and Demand
  • Producer Behaviour and Supply
  • Forms of Market and Price Determination

B. Macroeconomics

  • Introduction to Macroeconomics
  • National Income and Related Aggregates
  • Money


In addition to the Indian histories, the syllabus also covers the history of the world from the 18th to the 20th century. Specifically, it includes themes from the Ancient Period, Medieval Period, and Modern Period.


The syllabus covers human geography, physical geography, and practical work.


The syllabus covers Indian Society, Change and Development in Indian Society, and Structure, Process, and Stratification.


The syllabus includes Intelligence and Aptitude, Self and Personality, Learning, Motivation, and Emotions.


The syllabus includes Indian Philosophy, Western Philosophy, and Applied Ethics.

Home Science: 

The syllabus covers Human Development, Food and Nutrition, and Textiles and Clothing.

Fine Arts: 

The syllabus includes topics such as Drawing, Painting, Sculpture, and Applied Arts.

Physical Education: 

The syllabus for planning in sports, yoga and lifestyle, and physical education and sports for children with disabilities can be found in detail on the official CBSE website. Furthermore, it is imperative to note that these topics are included.

Tips to get good marks in CBSE class 10 and 12 boards exam

To ensure successful future academic and career prospects, it is of utmost importance that students score well in CBSE Class 10 and 12 board exams. Therefore, here are some tips to assist students in achieving high scores:

  • Plan a study schedule: Ensure that you are properly prepared for your upcoming course, it is essential to create a study schedule that considers all of the subjects, topics, and concepts. Generally speaking, you should invest more time into the topics you find difficult and less time into those you find easier. Additionally, make sure to set aside additional time for revising the material before taking any tests or exams.
  • Practice previous year's question papers: In order to gain insight into the exam pattern, the types of questions posed, and time management, it is recommended to look over the questions from the prior year.
  • Focus on NCERT books: To succeed in the CBSE board exams, reading and comprehending the concepts explained in the NCERT textbooks is essential.
  • Take mock tests: By taking mock tests, you can assess your level of preparation, identify what you excel at and what needs improvement, and ultimately enhance both your speed and accuracy.
  • Revise regularly: Revision is an essential part of exam preparation. So, revise all the topics and concepts regularly, and don't leave everything for the last minute. Furthermore, you should also seek help from your teacher if you find any doubt.
  • Make notes: Making notes while studying will help you remember important points, formulas, and definitions. Moreover, it will also save you time during revision, you should take notes when reading your textbooks.

To succeed in CBSE Class 10 and 12 board exams, it is essential to stay motivated, have faith in yourself, and build confidence. Indeed, hard work and preparation are essential.


Ultimately, the CBSE Syllabus for Classes 10 and 12 is an invaluable resource for students seeking to excel academically. With a wide range of topics including core subjects like mathematics, science, and language, as well as electives such as art, physical education, and business, it provides a comprehensive guide for academic success. Moreover, by taking advantage of its informational content, students can be better prepared for their board examinations and gain well-rounded knowledge. In short, the CBSE Syllabus is an excellent way to reach scholastic achievement.

Faqs related to CBSE 10 and 12 syllabus 

Q: What is the difference between the CBSE syllabus for the 10th and 12th classes?

A: The CBSE 10th syllabus consists of the basics like Mathematics, Science, Social Science, English and Hindi. However, the CBSE 12th syllabus concentrates on more advanced subjects in the three streams, which are Science, Commerce and Humanities.

Q: How is the CBSE syllabus decided?

A: The CBSE syllabus is constantly updated by a panel of experienced professionals to ensure it is up-to-date with the latest advancements in each subject. Furthermore, the board reviews the syllabus periodically to guarantee its accuracy.

Q: Can CBSE students opt for a subject change after 10th grade?

A: Indeed, if CBSE students fulfil the prerequisites imposed by the board, they can certainly switch to a different subject after completing 10th grade.

Q: Is the CBSE syllabus the same for all schools?

A: Yes, the CBSE syllabus is the same for all schools affiliated with the board. However, the teaching methodologies may differ from school to school.

Q: How can students access the CBSE syllabus?

A: Students can access the CBSE syllabus through the board's official website or by referring to the textbooks prescribed by the board.

Q: Are there any changes in the CBSE syllabus for the current academic year?

A: Periodically, the CBSE syllabus is revised and updated. Hence, it is highly suggested to visit the official CBSE website in order to keep track of any modifications or alterations made to the syllabus.

Q: Is the CBSE syllabus sufficient for competitive exams?

A: Yes, the CBSE syllabus is also designed to prepare students for competitive exams. However, students may need to boost their studies with additional preparation and practice to excel in competitive exams.